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What is Dysgraphia?

Dysgraphia affects a student’s ability to write coherently, regardless of their ability to read. Types identified include: Type 1: dyslexia dysgraphia where written work that is created spontaneously is illegible, copied work is good and spelling is poor. A student with dyslexia dysgraphia does not necessarily have dyslexia. Type 2: motor dysgraphia where the condition may be caused by […]

What is Dyscalculia?

Dyscalculia primarily affects the learning process in relation to Mathematics. Two of the types of dyscalculia that have been identified are: Type 1: developmental dyscalculia where students exhibit a marked discrepancy between their developmental level and general cognitive ability as it pertains to Mathematics. As a basic indicator of developmental dyscalculia students will perform below expectations […]

What is Down Syndrome?

In every cell in the human body there is a nucleus, where genetic material is stored in genes. Genes carry the codes responsible for all of our inherited traits and are grouped along rod-like structures called chromosomes. Typically, the nucleus of each cell contains 23 pairs of chromosomes, half of which are inherited from each […]

What is Development Verbal Dyspraxia (DVD)?

Developmental Verbal Dyspraxia (DVD) is used in Ireland and the UK to describe the same condition referred to in the USA as developmental apraxia of speech (DAS) or childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). Speech and language therapists are the appropriate professionals to assess a child’s speech and language skills and to diagnose verbal dyspraxia, where […]

What is Development Co-ordination Disorder (DCD) Dyspraxia?

‘Developmental Co-ordination Disorder (DCD), also known as Dyspraxia, is a common disorder affecting fine or gross motor co-ordination in children and adults. This condition is formally recognised by international organisations including the World Health Organisation. DCD is distinct from other motor disorders such as cerebral palsy and stroke. The range of intellectual ability is in […]

What is Cerebral Palsy?

Cerebral palsy is a term used to refer to a group of complicated conditions that affect movement and posture because of damage to or failure in the development of the part of the brain that controls movement. This happens before birth, during birth or during early childhood before the brain’s growth has reached a certain […]

What is Autism / Autistic Spectrum Disorders?

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) refers to a group of complex neurodevelopment disorders characterized by repetitive and characteristic patterns of behavior and difficulties with social communication and interaction. The symptoms are present from early childhood and affect daily functioning. The term “spectrum” refers to the wide range of symptoms, skills, and levels of disability in functioning […]

What Is Attention?

Attention is the process that allows us to take information in. It also helps us select useful information. Think of it as a funnel. It gathers what we need to know and channels it into our brain. There are four important parts of paying attention well. Children may have trouble with any or all of […]

What are sensory processing issues?

A child’s brain receives a steady stream of sensory information—from the smell of cookies baking to the feeling of shoes rubbing against her feet. Most children can “tune out” or “filter” that information as needed. They can deal with unexpected sensations, such as a loud crash on the playground. But children with sensory processing issues […]

What are Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD)?

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a brain disorder marked by an ongoing pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity that interferes with functioning or development. Inattention means a person wanders off task, lacks persistence, has difficulty sustaining focus, and is disorganized; and these problems are not due to defiance or lack of comprehension. Hyperactivity means a person seems to move […]